A typical PD research uses paradigms of participatory action research and ethnography. The research design comprises three core elements:
1 Designing two provocative prototypes and planning the scenario: the two provocative prototypes were designed based on best practices suggested by the literature, field trips to classrooms and empirical data (an open-ended questionnaire).
2 Workshops for redesigning the prototypes: two provocative prototypes were presented in active workshops (Frohlich et al., 2014) with students and lecturers. The workshops were delivered via a narrative consisting of: a storytelling moment that sets the scene, a discussion in groups about the prototype, a keep, lose or change activity, the redesign (based on sketches and pictures which are included in a A0 sheet of paper) and a final presentation.
3 Evaluation of the redesigned prototypes: The prototypes were then redesigned and presented to different stakeholders normally involved in this process.
Preliminary findings suggest that learning spaces and how technology is being used is influencing lectures are being delivered. They also suggest that HE institutions should better integrate students’ personal mobile devices into learning spaces. Students want to ‘jump’ from formal to social contexts and by having their own device plugged-in they would be able to consolidate these moments. The redesigns from both learning spaces are very different but they all suggest innovative perspectives of how a learning space should be. By using a PD approach an innovative way of having lectures and students reflecting on their role and the role of technology in the learning process is suggested.
Frohlich, D., Lim, C. and Ahmed, A., 2014. Keep, lose, change: Prompts for the re-design of product concepts in a focus group setting. CoDesign, 10(2), pp.80–95.
Jessop, T., Gubby, L. and Smith, A., 2012. Space frontiers for new pedagogies: a tale of constraints and possibilities. Studies in Higher Education, 37(2), pp.189–202.
Schuler, D. and Namioka, A., 1993. Participatory Design: Principles and Practices D. Schuler & A. Namioka, eds., Oxon, UK: CRC Press.